Assess the readiness of Hybrid Intelligence (HI) technologies to arrive at a human-AI system for a societally relevant use case.

Problem Context

The adopted use case is to achieve long-lasting lifestyle change to improve the quality of life of Diabetes Type 2 patients and reduce the workload for healthcare professionals.


This project worked towards an AI system that follows the collaborative perspective from HI (Hybrid Intelligence). The envisioned system will not function as a mere support tool for the patient in tracking their data and offering advice, but will be integrated into the socio-technical system of patient, healthcare professional and their respective environments. This implies that the AI system will both assist the patient and the healthcare professional, and collaborates with both to facilitate an effective joint decision-making to arrive at a lifestyle advice. An advice that can be continuously adapted to the patient’s needs and the healthcare professional’s insight to arrive at a long-lasting lifestyle change that improves the patient’s quality of life.


The project has resulted in new knowledge and development of technology:

  1. A vision on the future of lifestyle-centred primary care based on AI technology that is currently being developed. This vision involves reducing the general physicians’ workload and create a more rewarding work environment for them. In addition, it describes a future setting where patients receive a more personalized and focussed support in changing their lifestyle.
  2. Technology on how patients can be more effectively and adaptively prioritized for primary care consultations. This technology made use of the principle of hybrid AI where expert knowledge and machine learning are combined.
  3. Technology on how patients can be modelled from a more holistic and social perspective, based on a previously developed vision on patient profiles (360 Degree Profile) and the need to include a patient’s values in such profiles to achieve personalized and long-lasting lifestyle support.
  4. Interaction designs that facilitate the interaction between patient and an AI-based digital health coach, between primary care professional and a decision support system, and between patient, professional and AI system during consultations.

The involvement of explicit software developer companies for healthcare resulted in an increased awareness of vital hybrid intelligence technologies. These companies were longstanding contacts with the Healthy Living unit and this new insight in the expertise at TNO resulted in various leads being pursued in potential new projects.


  • Frans van Ette, Program director AI, TNO, e-mail: